In western Orissa the Gonds are one of the primitive tribes in Bolangiri district . According to 1991 census the total population in the district of the state was 19.22 percentage tribal population in Bolangiri district. The Gonds are living at Palik samara, Saintal, Kumudipadar, Kumudagaon, Tentulikhunti, Khujan palli, Kurligaon and the village of Chinnaguda.
The Gonds speak the language is called Gondi, Which have no scripts . Now a days most of tribes have adopted the Oriya language.
THE VILLAGE :
A Gond village among those names Chinnaguda is 7 kilometres far from Sindhikela a small town situated at the western side of Titilagarh . In Bolangiri district the destination is a smallest social unit of Gonds family which is nuclear type . A family comprise to parents and their children.
A Gond hut is generally rectangular which is about 20ft. long and 15ft. wide. A single door is provided in every hut. Without any window. The walls are made of wooden poles stuck close to each another on the ground and the whole thing is plastered with earth and cowdung mixed with coloured earth.
LIFE STYLE :
Gond men and women both are hard labourious . They have tiny own cultivation lands and spend most of their time in the fields. Like other tribal communities the Gonds are fond of observing ceremonial functions . They believe in many super natural beings of which the Gods and goddess are considered supreme . They are celebrated some worships, like Hindu religion . Before worshipping they smear the place with cowdung water and paint the Jhoti or Alpana on the ground surface and the house walls.
AWARENESS OF ART :
The Gonds of this district perform “Bali Yatra” which is generally observed for seven to twelve days after Sunia. In every village there is a Bali house nad a preist either male or female is appointed for the function. In every night continuosly for above those days beginning from sunia with music and dance is conducted and the people who join in that function generally beat Dhol or Tamka and blow Mahuri.
The women of Gonds are skilled in wall painting and also practicing one kind of handicraft with use of paddy. They are worshiped to Goddess Laxmi as like as Hindu society and paint icons on their interior walls and also out side wall of the hut. The paintings have an emotional aesthetic expression of the people in the village.
The Gond women performed several rituals for fulfillment of desires which are known as Bara Osha for each occasion a specific motifs is drawn on the wall.
In a traditional society the life of a human being is socially and religious linked up with several obligations one has to meet for ones family.
TECHNIQUES & MATERIALS :
The Mother earth, fire, water, tree, sun, moon and the Goddess who huard the village, each of deities is contained in such a form of art. Jhoti chita generally drawn on the wall are meant to establish a relationship between a mystical and material.
The main ingredient for the drawing is white paint made with pulverized rice powder. They are drawn Jhoti with receeding finger tip dots on the wall or on a stick a kind of manual brush prepared from the tree roots of twig tied with cloth is used to paint on walls.
All icons are related to agriculture legends . Their artistic design motifs are equal to Hinduism symbols like floral designs decorated a short of benedection to the mother earth . They also encourage charity providing food to the ants and insects who thrive on the r ice contest of the pithou.
The chitas are drawn by only women which work is a ritual profession hereditary. They believe that the Goddess visit the wall paintings and bless to family members for happy life. During the Laxmi puja after the icon is drawn the women start worship to the deity and break their fast by taking food and drink. Before it they dedicated newly harvested fruits and vegetables to the Deity.