JHUTI CHITA TRIBE – GOND

INTRODUCTION :

In western Orissa the Gonds are one of the primitive tribes in Bolangiri  district . According to 1991 census the total population in the district of the state was 19.22 percentage tribal population in Bolangiri district. The Gonds are living at Palik samara, Saintal, Kumudipadar, Kumudagaon, Tentulikhunti, Khujan palli, Kurligaon and the village  of Chinnaguda.

The Gonds speak the language is called Gondi, Which have no scripts . Now a days most of tribes have adopted the Oriya language.

THE VILLAGE :

A Gond village among those names Chinnaguda is 7 kilometres far from Sindhikela a small town situated at the western side of Titilagarh . In Bolangiri district  the destination is a smallest social unit of Gonds  family which is nuclear type . A family comprise to parents and their children.

A Gond hut is generally rectangular which is about 20ft. long and 15ft. wide. A single door is provided in every hut. Without any window. The  walls are made of wooden poles stuck close to each another on the ground and the whole thing is plastered with earth and cowdung mixed with coloured earth.

LIFE STYLE :

Gond men and women both are hard labourious . They have tiny own cultivation lands and spend most of their  time in the fields. Like other  tribal communities the Gonds are fond of observing  ceremonial functions . They believe in many super natural beings of which the Gods and goddess are considered supreme . They are celebrated some worships, like  Hindu religion . Before worshipping  they smear the place with cowdung water and paint the Jhoti or Alpana on the ground surface and the house walls.

AWARENESS OF ART :

The Gonds of this district perform “Bali Yatra” which is generally observed for seven to twelve days after Sunia. In every village  there is a Bali  house nad a preist either male or female is appointed for the function. In every night continuosly  for above those days beginning from sunia  with music and dance is conducted and the people who join in that function generally beat Dhol or Tamka and blow Mahuri.

The women of Gonds are skilled  in wall painting and also practicing one kind of handicraft with use of paddy. They are worshiped to Goddess Laxmi as like as Hindu society and paint icons on their interior  walls and also out side wall of the hut. The paintings have an emotional aesthetic expression of the people in the village.

The  Gond women performed several rituals for fulfillment of desires which are known as Bara Osha   for each occasion a specific  motifs is drawn on the wall.

In a traditional society the life of a human being is socially and religious  linked up with several obligations one has to meet  for ones family.

TECHNIQUES &  MATERIALS :

The Mother earth, fire, water, tree, sun, moon and the Goddess who huard the village, each of deities  is contained in such a form of art. Jhoti  chita generally drawn on the wall are meant to establish a relationship  between a mystical and material.

The main ingredient for the drawing is white paint made with pulverized rice powder. They are drawn Jhoti with receeding finger  tip dots on the wall or on a stick a kind of manual brush prepared from the tree roots of twig tied with cloth is used to paint on walls.

All icons are related to  agriculture legends . Their artistic design motifs are equal to  Hinduism symbols like floral designs decorated a short of benedection to the mother earth . They also encourage charity providing food to the ants and insects who thrive on the r ice contest of the pithou.

CONCLUSION :

The chitas are drawn by only women which work is a ritual profession  hereditary. They believe that the Goddess visit the wall paintings and bless to family members for happy life. During the Laxmi puja after the icon is drawn the women start worship to the deity and break their fast by taking food and drink. Before it they dedicated newly harvested fruits and vegetables to the Deity.

MANDANA TRIBE – KISSAN

INTRODUCTION :

The Kissans are one of the habitants among  the other tribes of Orissa. They concentrate mostly in the  districts of Sundargarh, Sambalpur & Dhenkanal of Orissa . The  Kissans are living in above districts  where oriya is the predominant  language. Hence they are by necessity bi-lingual and use their own the “kun” language which is a branch of the “Oraon” family. In past their ancestors concentrated in northen Orissa .Since  a long who are from Chhotnagpur  area. Now a days most of Kissans are talking the oriya language cause of living among with oriya inhabitants in above districts .

VILLAGE & LIFE STYLE :

The kissans have not any proper village but they are living among Hindu society become a community in such village. There are a few numbers of villages like – Tumulia, Bamanda etc. The Kissans are mainly cultivator “Gountia” & “Kale” both are the chief of their community. Every community have a “Gramsiri” or the “Goddess” situated at the end of the village for their protection.

Kissans are very laborious. They do different types of work for earning money and most of people are cutivate their own tiny lands. Some of men plucking  kendu leaves  and collect the forest being items and sale at local market.

The Kissans are pleased to their “Gramasiri” Goddess of village through worshipping when they need their wants . “Dehuri (who do  the worship) is lived among them. He cure patients after control to ghost & spirits.

The Kissans are worshipped to their Goddess during the time of paddy seeding & harvesting which is called “Dhanpuja”. The all villagers are gathered at the worship place with paddy corp and at last after worshipping they back their own corps.

According to the social existence they are divided in to sixteen parties . To obey their own social rights they do not arrange the matrimonial settlement between the same flock . If  one is done any such  mistake is forbidded by the society and he can stay again when the chief who is called panigiri decided  to stay among with them.

The villagers are celebrated  “Gangastami Festival” in the month of Kartik & Margasir (November).

AWARENESS OF ART :

Kissans wall painting is mostly related to agricultural festives. The main painters are women in their family like Hindus deities they are also worshipped to Durga , Kali, Laxmi, Saraswati and observe the festivals like Akshya trutiya , Rajaparva, Gahma

purnima and other ritual fests in tye year which are related to growth to their agricultural properties .

In the time of above festivals they drawn icons on the mud-wall. The art of knowledge  is being  known through their wall painting. Especially most of people are influenced by the Hinduism symbols and they are observed the equal festivals in some occasion . So most of wall paintings are seen like similar styles as Hindu icons.

THEMES OF PAINTING :

Before start the wall painting they are prayed to the main deity and hermits (Risi). to forgive their done  sins.Therefore first they draw seven numbers of long white lines which are concepted as seven harmits.The figure of risis are not drawn. These seven lines are identifies as seven hermits and they believe the rishis will blessed to all family members and protect the accidents. Like the above seven lines they drawn the almighty deities like Brahma, Vishnu & Maheswar only three lines again.

In neighbour  district Sambalpur the famous  Goddess entitled “Maa Samalei” which dignity  reflected in their society . So the mothers & the unmarried girls are observe  fasting and celebrate “Dasahara” festival. When they are worshipped they draw seven numbers of zeros  which means are concepted as seven Goddesses as the figures of Mahalaxmi.

There is a numoural story behind  about the seven zeros . There was a cultivator who had seven daughters they cursed by a rishi and changed in to seven paddy plants. So according to their memory they have been drawing seven zeros during the festival and worshipped to Mahalaxmi. Since from last an olden age.

They believe as Durga to Samalei Goddess during  the dasahara  festival . The Kissans women painters  are also drawn the foot prints and horns of a cow on the wall.Their  painting works are symbolism which are related to agriculture designs . They believe the mother cow is evidential goddess of Mahalaxmi . When they are paryed to laxmi they draw criss-cross lines and worship with oblasion for development of cultivation .

The house walls are decorated with such types of icons on the cleaned and smeared wall. It helps to maintain their family-members to happy living.

Kissans wall paintings generally are some to be identified as a meaningless theme but these drawings are very mysterious thing which meanings are not manifestated . It seems their society with hereditarily art is still remained in their living tradition .

CHITAR TRIBE – JUANG

INTRODUCTION:

The juang are one of the primitive tribes spread over the districts  of Keonjhar and Dhenkanal  of orissa .They mainly in-habit the forest ,hill and valleys ,the tribe  has a language  of  its own ,which is unwritten  and comes under the Mundari  group of the Austro-Asiatic  language family . They are fond of hunting ,bird  catching  and food gathering .Environment is their real for their existence.

The Juang are very simple by nature and have medium height, long head, prominent cheek bones ,wide nose and their skin colour brown to light black and face is oval.

VILLAGE AND LIFE STYLE:

The  juang live in small and compact villages situated on the Eastern Ghat hill range.Most  villages are uniclan in composition  and thus each village is exogamous . Customarily  each village has its territorial  boundaries . The inhabitants of a village exclusively control and exploit natural resourse of the village collectively .For subsistence  the juangs primarily  depend on shifting , cultivation ,which they practice on hill slopes by clearing off  the vegetarian .

There  are 30 nos , of juang villages like Guptaganga , Kadalibari , kantari , Raidiha , Uparraidiha , Tal raidiha  , Bayakumutia , Bayapanda dhar , Gar Gadei , Baitarini , Talapada , Budhighar , Phulbari , Upar Panas Nasa etc. The large village Guptaganga 30 km. Distance from Keonjhar head quarter.

Every juang village of Keonjhar has at the centre a  big house locally known as “Mandaghar” . Especially it is meant for the youths. Traditional dance,music, and culture activities  take place there.On the otherhand,it is a centre of harmony,integration and natural relationship.The village Panchayat  sits here and solves the problems of the villagers. It also serves as a guest house for the visitors to the village .

Like  several other tribal  communities they have identified  themselves by means of their  folk  culture which is revealed through their  world – views ,attitude, aspiration , sorrows  and happiness . Different  folk traditions such  as folk tales,folk songs, myths legends , riddles, proverbs , wall paintings  , bodily decoration wood carving, craft making, engraving, dance and music are examples of their very rich culture heritage, their total way of life is reflected on their on their  folk traditions . The art and craft , their design motifs from aesthetic point of view and only highly imaginative and original but also meaningful from socio-culture point of view.

WALL PAINTING:

Among the juangs one can find wall painting containing animals and birds made out of colour earth, they have their designs of different shapes, size and geometrical figures, they mostly use earth of red colour which are available in their locality. According to specific occasion they make special type of paintings for decoration.It is also manifested in relation to festival and various ritualistic observances.The juangs craftsman and artists have retained   their indigenous style over years.By and large, the artistic skill is transmitted from father to son and mother to daughter.

They  are much interested in house decoration, first they coat houses with mud, cow-dung  and ahses and make border lines with Indian red earth colours.In every festival particulary  during  the time of “Nuakhai” (New rice eating) mango Nuakhai in the  month of January – februray and April they clean their houses beautifully  and  change the old earthen  pots. They prepare a special type of food mixing wine there in and offer to their ancestors , local Gods and goddess. They decorate their houses with alpana  designs .In this  case they follow  a procedure by throwing  liquid rice and white colour on the wall with various designs like elephant , peacock flower and symbol of the Sun and Venus .

In rare cases ,the Dihuri  and  his wife (man & nature) are shown by exposing their phallic & vulva ,which  is  the mark of creation the venus design is very interesting  and with a simplified  abstract  form of a women . The division of space as well as maintained rhythmic and integrated. Two hands  and a pair of breasts are carried prominently.

THE ART RELIGIOUS  FUNCTIONARIES:

There are many functional myths in the verbal tradition of the juangs which justify  their actions and their thought – pattern . These myths account for the ideological order of the juangs ,which are actualized in their socio-economic activities  and reflects in their wall paintings . Every myths is fundamentally a classification based on religious belief.

ENGRAVING ART TRADITION :

There are not much paintings done on the walls although they are very interested to decorate their houses . But on the inner doors they carve low relief scenes in a simplified process. The hunting scenes are common in the case of kandhs ,souara,santal and Muria.

The art of  caring designs rae shown on each object like –hunting weapons,agricultural  implements , house hold materials , personal belongings, musical instruments,ornaments  and many others are associated  with aesthetic values .

The wood carving designs and geometrical  motifs are equally meaningful,these are symbolical and consists of abstract figures of decoration . The juang make pillars for their Majang more attractive  by engraving designs ,notches and figurines. Their workmanship in the wooden post,sculptures and symbolic representation  carved on wooden structures are not only magnificent but also virtually relevant some  modern items on wooden post of certain implements  and house hold articles contain beautiful design.

The juang skilled enough in this field  have a sense of high social prestige .Combs of  various types are used for dressing hair,as an item of gifts exchange to lovers and beloved and for combing hair.The thread work as well as artistic shape and designs as the non-working portion of the camp are special attraction.

They prepare their comb with the help of bamboo,wood  and bone devices,unlike souras,Kutia kundhas and Baigas the juang make combs with special attention ,Human figures, animals and birds are covered on the top nad middle panels in the comb. Some times zig-zag lines nad geometric lines are carved in such a manner that it looks very intresting  and beautiful .

The another object of daily utility the tobacco-cases are very common in most of the tribes like kandhs , Munias, Bonda and souras , the juang tobacco case in decorative and artistic. They prepare tobacco case out of the root of the bamboo and make a hollow at the centre.The line drawings of motifs are drawn as it looks  long and beautiful.

The flute of the juang is another specimen of an artistic object . The surface of the flute is divided of the flute is divided into various sections .Each section has different types of human,animal and figures. Each division is also designed with geometric and zig-zag lines.Subject from their socio-cultural lines are also seen.No space is left without decoration. They usefully use their flutes during the time of festival and specific ceremonies.

ANALYSIS OF ART  TRADITION:

To classify the art tradition of juang it may be recorded as follows:

a) Wall painting with animal figures and floral designs.

b) Carving of the door and wooden post with traditional designs.

c) The bamboo & wooden combs of various shapes with beautiful engravings.

d) The pattern of ornaments and body decorations including tattoo marks.

e) Various craft objects.

Beauty is the end of all art.The juangs are trying their level best to enjoy the beauty in their day to day life.

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